In a society that was founded upon agriculture and animal husbandry totally reliant upon its natural environment and in … Chinese mythology classifies dragons into many different types. Fuxi's name, 伏羲, is made up of the Chinese character meaning to lie down, fú (伏), and the Ancient Chinese word for vapor, xī (羲).  Ancestors are regarded as the equivalent of Heaven within human society, and therefore as the means connecting back to Heaven, which is the "utmost ancestral father" (曾祖父 zēngzǔfù). And other kinds of seals having ornaments of dragons are also used by emperors, which have official validity and authority. Chinese Dragons are divine mythical creatures that brings with it ultimate abundance, prosperity and good fortune. Chinese dragons are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology and Chinese folklore. The original story of the Chinese dragon has changed over time. The cult of this deity is historically exercised all over China. Clothes embroidered with five-claw dragons show imperial authority, which should be wore by emperors only, called Dragon Robe. Subscribe for more food adventures! In mythology, Huangdi and Yandi fought a battle against each other; and Huang finally defeated Yan with the help of the Dragon (the controller of water, who is Huangdi himself). He gives appropriate punishment according to the conduct of each’s acts during his lifetime.  The latter term 仙 xiān unambiguously means a man who has reached immortality, (Xian sounds similar to Sanskrit word Chiranjeevi, The Immortal one) similarly to the Western idea of "hero". When there is an earthquake in a direction, the ball in the dragon mouth of that direction would fall into the mouth of the corresponding toad. He is sometimes referred to as Sìhǎi Lóngwáng (四海龍王), meaning the “Dragon King of the Four Seas” or simply as Lóngshén (龍神), or “Dragon God.”  Yan 炎 is flame, scorching fire, or an excess of it (it is important to note that graphically it is a double 火 huo, "fire"). First , dragon is deified as a god, and people build temples for it, light incense sticks and offer sacrifices to it, because of its mighty power. The Dragon is a supernatural being … Other forms include turtles, fish, lions, and imaginary creatures. The Dragon King, also known as the Dragon God, is a Chinese water and weather god. They may go to somewhere by taking a dragon boat, and may do dragon dance in festivals. To the Chinese, the Imperial Dragon or Lung, is considered to be the primary of four benevolent spiritual animals, the other three being the phoenix, the unicorn and the tortoise. Each deity has a cult centre and ancestral temple where he or she, or the parents, lived their mortal life. https://otherworldlyoracle.com/dragon-gods-goddesses-fuxi-medea-veles … In the Chinese zodiac that's the year of the dragon, which is a big deal. He has the ability to shapeshift into human form and lives in an underwater crystal palace. Red Dragon, named Ao Qin, is the patron of the South Sea. Chaotian Palace (朝天宮) of Beigang, Yunlin County in Taiwan, is devoted to the goddess Mazu, also has human-shaped statues for the four Dragon Kings, each riding on a dragon. , Chinese traditional theology, which comes in different interpretations according to the classic texts, and specifically Confucian, Taoist and other philosophical formulations, is fundamentally monistic, that is to say it sees the world and the gods who produce it as an organic whole, or cosmos. Chinese dragon is called Long in Chinese language, and it is a noble divine creature, respected as a God, with the symbolic meanings of fortune, good luck, peace, authority and prosperity; while western dragon is belittled as an emblem of the evil, greedy for gold, with the symbolic meaning of destroy and deceiving. In Taoism, there are four Dragon Kings, having respective jurisdictions over the East Sea, the South Sea, the West sea and the North Sea. Dragon King. They are powerfulbut often too large to be easily used. Fúcánglóng: Underground guardians of hidden treasures and places of powerful energy. Chinese dragons are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology and folklore.  These names are combined in different ways in Chinese theological literature, often interchanged in the same paragraph if not in the same sentence. Say hello to Ao Qin (South), Ao Run (West), Ao Shun (North) and Ao Guang (East). The original dragon was a water god. The history of the Oriental dragon dates back to and probably even farther back than the Xia Dynasty, the first Chinese Dynasty, in 2100 BC. Fuxi is a figure and dragon god in Chinese mythology. 7. One of the famous TV series, the Journey to the West, has stories about Ao Guang, who is under the control of the Jade Emperor.  Tiān is usually translated as "Heaven", but by graphical etymology it means "Great One" and a number of scholars relate it to the same Dì through phonetic etymology and trace their common root, through their archaic forms respectively *Teeŋ and *Tees, to the symbols of the squared north celestial pole godhead (Dīng 口). , Unlike in Hinduism, the deification of historical persons and ancestors is not traditionally the duty of Confucians or Taoists. 6. The Green Dragon is the power of the east. The Lóng are water dragon that appear often in Chinese mythology. People born in the year of 1940, 1952, 1964, 1976, 1988, 2000, 2012, or 2024 belong to the Dragon zodiac sign. Northeast China has clusters of deities which are peculiar to the area, deriving from the Manchu and broader Tungusic substratum of the local population. Known as the Dragon King, Longwang is a fierce and powerful Chinese god who commands the oceans, weather, dragons, and creatures of the sea. Huáng Lóng: The yellow dragon, the first of all dragons. Long Wang, or Dragon King, is the Chinese god of the sea. The Dragon symbolizes power, nobleness, honor, luck, and success in traditional Chinese culture. Other names of the God of Heaven are attested in the vast Chinese religio-philosophical literary tradition: Tian is both transcendent and immanent, manifesting in the three forms of dominance, destiny and nature of things. In special days and festivals, like the Dragon Heads-raising Day and in the event of a drought, people would go to a Dragon King Temple, light incense sticks and pray for rains and good weather for agricultural production. It represents Yang, the Chinese Emperor, masculinity, imperial power, transformation, good fortune, and much more.Dragons wield tremendous power over the natural world and are particularly adept at controlling water and the weather.  The gods are energies or principles revealing, imitating and propagating the way of Heaven (Tian 天), which is the supreme godhead manifesting in the northern culmen of the starry vault of the skies and its order. Chinese dragons control the r ain, rivers, lakes, and seas. The dragons have many animal-like forms such as turtles, fish, and imaginary creatures, but they are most commonly depicted as snake-like with four legs. He has a filing book which records the life and death of every person. Erlang Shen is a folk hero god that helped calm catastrophic flooding during ancient times. Black Dragon, named Ao Shun, is the king of the North Sea. Qixing Niangniang ("Lady of the Seven Stars") is a goddess that represents the seven visible stars of the Big Dipper or Great Chariot. Born to a powerful being Hua Hsu, Fuxi was a half-man half-serpent creature that came to be the “first human being”. Dragon King is deified as a god, called the Dragon God, and it is the highest ruler in seas, controlling all creatures in seas, and a god controlling water and weather. Originally a rain divinity, the Chinese dragon, unlike its malevolent European counterpart (see dragon), is … The Didong Yi points out eight directions, and each direction has a dragon with a ball in its mouth, and a toad under the dragon head. Many gods are ancestors or men who became deities for their heavenly achievements; most gods are also identified with stars and constellations. The cult of fox deities is characteristic of. … The uncommon name Daegon, usually used in ancient writing, also means dragon. Their names are Ao Kuang (who rules the East), Ao K’in (South), Ao Jun (West), and Ao Shun (North). The Chinese word for dragon is Lóng (traditional ch. These are the type of dragons from myths and legends across asia. A Chinese dragon, also known as Long or Lung, is a legendary creature in Chinese mythology, Chinese folklore, and Chinese culture at large. 8. Chinese Sea Gods. Second, emperors profess themselves as the incarnation of dragon, and call themselves dragon or long in Chinese, and dragon has close relation with ancient Chinese politics and religion. The Dragon is the fifth of the 12 Chinese zodiac animals. Chinese Dragons - Physiology and History. Being the divine mythical animal, the dragon can ward off wandering evil spirits, protect the innocent and bestow safety to all. In the Wade-Giles system, Paoxi is written as Pao-Hsi. From this, you may aware that there is a saying that the Jade Emperor, as the strongest god, rules the four Dragon Kings. There are frequently disputes over which is the original place and source temple of the cult of a deity. :149–150; 191, note 18 A different figure but with the same astral connections as Bixia is the Goddess of the Seven Stars (七星娘娘 Qīxīng Niángniáng). The Chinese dragon like the Indian Naga's, are often associated with water and rain and lakes and rivers. Fuxi was born along the Yellow River, with his twin sister Nuwa, who he would marry and … This analogy is attested in the Shuowen Jiezi explaining "deity" as "what faces the base of a melon fruit". The first were the old, friendly dragons. In the Wujing yiyi (五經異義, "Different Meanings in the Five Classics"), Xu Shen explains that the designation of Heaven is quintuple:, All these designations reflect a hierarchical, multiperspective experience of divinity. The original dragon was a water god. When peasants suffer severe droughts, the Emperor of imperial authority may make worship rituals to Dragon King and devoutly pray for rains. In other styles of romanization, like the Wade-Giles system, his name is written as Fu-Hsi.  The cult of Chenjinggu present in southeast China is identified by some scholars as an emanation of the northern cult of Bixia. People born in the year of the Dragon are powerful, kind-hearted, successful, innovative, brave, healthy courageous and enterprising. Dragon Gods or Dragon Deities are dragons that have ascended to the power of a deity or either a dragon who has long been considered to be divine itself. One seal owned by Qianlong Emperor, having nine dragons, was sold $ 22milions at auction. Dragon is a totem of Chinese nation, a symbol of China, and it has the highest status among animals, deified by and sacred to Chinese people. Yan Wang is Chinese god of death who commands all the gods of the underworld. Unsurprisingly, 睚眦 is viewed as the Chinese dragon god of battles and wars. The divine dragon is worshipped by Chinese people, from the emperors to the ordinary people. , Besides Shangdi and Taidi, other names include Yudi ("Jade Deity") and Taiyi ("Great Oneness") who, in mythical imagery, holds the ladle of the Big Dipper (Great Chariot) providing the movement of life to the world.  Bixia herself is identified by Taoists as the more ancient goddess Xiwangmu, The general Chinese term for "goddess" is 女神 nǚshén, and goddesses may receive many qualifying titles including mǔ (母 "mother"), lǎomǔ (老母 "old mother"), shèngmǔ (聖母 "holy mother"), niángniáng (娘娘 "lady"), nǎinai (奶奶 "granny"). Ao Guang is popular among people, and is often made as a character in movies, TV series, animates and fictions. The second type were the evil winged dragons as originally told by the Buddhists. You’ll find him on sword ornaments.  As an excess of fire brings destruction to the earth, it has to be controlled by a ruling principle. In contrast to the Dragon Kings, Mazu, although also a deity of sea, is a motherly figure who never wreaks havoc. The Dragon King (traditional Chinese: 龍王; simplified Chinese: 龙王; pinyin: Lóng Wáng; Sanskrit: nāgarāja) is a deity in Chinese mythology commonly regarded as the divine ruler of the ocean.  In the theology of the classic texts and Confucianism, "Heaven is the lord of the hundreds of deities". The Hongshan culture sites in present-day Inne… If you are interested in imperial seals, you may go to the Palace Museum in Beijing. Een Chinese draak is de god van het water en iedere poel of put heeft zijn eigen draak. The Emperor and the Dragon. Couplets or polarities, such as Fuxi and Nuwa, Xiwangmu and Dongwanggong, and the highest couple of Heaven and Earth, all embody yin and yang and are at once the originators and maintainers of the ordering process of space and time.. A fisherman in Inner Mongolia, China captured what looks like a real chinese dragon. In some eastern cultures, the dragon plays an integral part in creation mythology. Having unrivaled wizdom and power the dragon symbolized the Emperors of China themselves, who were actually called dragons. The cult of this deity is historically exercised in northern China. The Unicorn’s Prophecy. Personality Traits for Male Dragon : As the symbol of Chinese nation, dragon represents authority and good fortune. Chinese dragon’s deep relation with emperors can be seen from emperors' birth to death: on the day of a emperor’s birth, strange phenomena related with dragon, like strange weather, would take place. Unlike the the negative aspect associated with Western Dragons, most Eastern Dragons are beautiful, friendly, and wise. In ancient texts, Fuxi is also sometimes called Paoxi (庖犧). The player will need to utilize the various pillars as cover from his line of sight. Dragons are probably the single most important mythical creatures in Chinese culture. Universal Church of the Way and its Virtue, northern culmen of the starry vault of the skies, five constellations rotating around the celestial pole, "Swastika: The Forgotten Constellation Representing the Chariot of Mithras", "Xiwangmu: The Shamanic Great Goddess of China", "Understanding Di and Tian: Deity and Heaven from Shang to Tang Dynasties", Volume I: The Ancient Eurasian World and the Celestial Pivot, Volume II: Representations and Identities of High Powers in Neolithic and Bronze China, Volume III: Terrestrial and Celestial Transformations in Zhou and Early-Imperial China, "Old Chinese "*tees" and Proto-Indo-European "*deus": Similarity in Religious Ideas and a Common Source in Linguistics", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chinese_gods_and_immortals&oldid=995573643, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Two other great fox deities, peculiar to northeast China, are the Great Lord of the Three Foxes (, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 20:04. Dragons are everywhere in China — in legends, festivals, astrology, art, names, and idioms. Rather depends on the choices of common people; persons are deified when they have made extraordinary deeds and have left an efficacious legacy. In ancient China, the dragon was a highly significant creature that became a symbol of the Emperor and his throne was sometimes called the Dragon Throne.  The Chinese idea of the universal God is expressed in different ways; there are many names of God from the different sources of Chinese tradition. White Dragon, named Ao Run, is the ruler of the West Sea. That makes dragon kings win respects from people and be an important god to people’s living. Chinese dragons and Japanese dragons are very similar, probably because much of Japan's dragon mythology derives from China. He rules over his four brothers, who each oversee the waters in one of the cardinal directions. In temples, you can see dragon elements and sculptures of Dragon King here and there, while some temples enshrine more than one dragon king. The Heirloom Seal of the Real, a famous seal first carved in Qin Dynasty, belongs to emperors, and represents imperial power, and it should be passed into the hands of emperors in succession. Dragon is not only worshipped by the royal, but also by the ordinary people. It represents Yang, the Chinese Emperor, masculinity, imperial power, transformation, good fortune, and much more.Dragons wield tremendous power over the natural world and are particularly adept at controlling water and the weather. Therefore, in Chinese history, the Emperors usually referred themselves as either dragon or the descendant of the dragon. Dragons or dragon-like depictions have been found extensively in neolithic-period archaeological sites throughout China. Dragon (龙 lóng) – a mythical, chimeric creature of utmost importance in Chinese mythology and culture. They appear in multiple national celebrations, Chinese idioms (known as Chengyu), as well as being part of the Chinese zodiac.They adorn multiple buildings and doors as carvings, are weaved into fabrics for traditional Chinese clothes, and are painted in murals and used in dances to this day. Animal deities related to shamanic practices are characteristic of the area and reflect wider Chinese cosmology. Panlong (coiled dragon): Water dragon similar to the Jiaolong. A burial site Xishuipo in Puyang which is associated with the Yangshao culture shows a large dragon mosaic made out of clam shells. Dì is a title expressing dominance over the all-under-Heaven, that is all things generated by Heaven and ordered by its cycles and by the stars. * The prediction is valid for 2021 (year of the Ox) starting from Feb. 12, 2021 and lasting to Jan. 31, 2022.Rating: In 2021, the Xin Chou (辛丑) year, Dragon will damage Tai Sui - the legendary God who is in charge of people's fortune in the year. When the dragon king is anger or loses his temper, the waters would be roaring, and have immense rolling waves, which is terrible for sailing and fishery. Chinese Dragon Kings. These Dragons represent celestial and terrestrial power, wisdom and strength. It is also said that the Yellow dragon taught writing to the goddess Fuxi and that she controls the seasons and time. 3. https://www.topchinatravel.com/china-guide/chinese-dragon-worship.htm Páo (庖) is an old-fashioned way to say kitchen or cook, while xī (犧) is an archaic Chinese word for sacrificial animal. Model humanity: Xian Zhenren Wen and wu Practices Fenxiang Jingxiang Feng shui Miaohui Wu shamanism Jitong mediumship Precious scrolls Institutions and temples Associations of good-doing Lineage associations or churches Chinese temple Ancestral shrine Chinese Folk Temples' Association Festivals Qingming Zhongyuan Zhongqiu Jiuhuangye Qixi Duanwu Nian Internal traditions Major cultural forms Chinese ancestral religion Chinese communal deity religion Chinese mother goddess worship No… (See for yourself … Specific rules are applied to make clothes with dragon motif which are wore by princes or other royal family. The Chinese proclaim themselves "Lung Tik Chuan Ren", Descendents of the Dragon. You see, the dragon is amongst the most important of China's mythological creatures. , In Chinese language there is a terminological distinction between 神 shén, 帝 dì and 仙 xiān. He has his own royal court and commands an army comprising various marine creatures. Mother goddess is central in the theology of many folk religious sects.. Chinese Dragons. His majestic and unique power makes him the controller of weather and water, and he may let it rains a lot, and he may order no rainfalls, which would in a great sense, have an impact on farming. In Chinese art, dragons are typically portrayed as long, scaled, serpentine creatures with four legs. Shén Lóng: A spirit dragonthat controls the weather. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 17 nov 2020 om 11:58. Yellow Dragon of the Center in Chinese mythology. Ordinary people may have a name related with dragon, like Jackie Chan’ s Chinese name-to become a dragon, and may name a place or a thing related with dragon, like Heilongjiang province. This is especially important in the Chinese cosmological system of yin and yang, the balance of opposites. The cult of Canmu is related to that of Houtu ("Queen of Earth") and to that of the Sanxiao ("Three Skies") goddesses. The later myths told, had two types of dragons. Long Wang (Dragon King) 龙王. When the player enters the fog door and gets close enough to the Dragon God, it will punch the pillars at the end of the corridor out of place; being too close to the point of impact will cause severe blunt damage. Longwang’s name is comprised of the Chinese characters for “dragon,” lóng (龍), and “king,” wáng (王). 5. Dìlóng: An earth dragon that lives underground. Although the usage of the former two is sometimes blurred, it corresponds to the distinction in Western cultures between "god" and "deity", Latin genius (meaning a generative principle, "spirit") and deus or 'Deva' (Sanskrit) and 'divus; dì, sometimes translated as "thearch", implies a manifested or incarnate "godly" power. However, they tend to be conceited, scrutinizing, tactless, quick-tempered and over-confident. Also known as Dragon-Kings, Lung-Wang. According to Chinese mythology, the dragon is the auspicious god-like creature who bestowed wealth and good fortune to those who are worthy of it. 1 Known Behaviour 2 Glitch 3 Gallery 4 Trivia Unlike Western dragons, Chinese dragons are friendly unless attacked first and can be ridden without being tamed.  This myth symbolises the equipoise of yin and yang, here the fire of knowledge (reason and craft) and earthly stability. Chinese dragons are mythological beings that come in many different forms, but the most common one is the long, snake-like creature with four legs and no wings. Chinese zodiac sign of the Dragon: Every year within each 12-year cycle of the lunar calendar is represented in Chinese mythology by one of 12 animals. And finally, 蚣蝮 Gōngfù sometimes called 霸下 Bà xià is the dragon god of the water and the Dragon King’s ninth son. Pánlóng: Snake-like rive… Remember their names because if there’s a water shortage it’s them you’ll need to appease.  The universal principle that gives origin to the world is conceived as transcendent and immanent to creation, at the same time. Perhaps the most important are the Celestial Dragon Kings, but we have a real fondness for the four Ocean Dragon Kings. Jiāolóng: Crocodile dragon that can change form. Several things used by emperors only has special functions and validity. People born in the year of the Dragon are powerful, kind-hearted, successful, innovative, brave, healthy courageous and enterprising. 龍, simplified 龙, or Lung). The types are: 1. He has his own royal court and commands an army comprising various marine creatures. The later myths told, had two types of dragons. 2. , The radical Chinese terms for the universal God are Tiān 天 and Shàngdì 上帝 (the "Highest Deity") or simply Dì 帝 ("Deity"). The Dragon King (Traditional Chinese: 龍王; Simplified Chinese: 龙王; Pinyin: Lóng Wáng) is a deity in Chinese mythology commonly regarded as the divine ruler of the ocean. 1 Strategy 2 Notes 3 Drops 4 Gallery 5 Trivia When the player enters the fog door and gets close enough to the Dragon God, it will punch the pillars at the end of the corridor out of place; being too close to the point of impact will cause severe blunt damage. Most of these dragon's appearances are based off that of the Chinese dragon. [note 1] It is etymologically and figuratively analogous to the concept of di as the base of a fruit, which falls and produces other fruits. The additional eight main goddesses of fertility, reproduction and growth are::149–150; 191, note 18, Altars of goddess worship are usually arranged with Bixia at the center and two goddesses at her sides, most frequently the Lady of Eyesight and the Lady of Offspring. [Chinese Dragons are quite different from Western Dragons. The divine dragon is worshipped by Chinese people, from the emperors to the ordinary people. Besides the aforementioned Fox Gods (狐仙 Húxiān), they include: Gods who have been adopted into Chinese religion but who have their origins in the Indian subcontinent or Hinduism: This article is about Chinese popular deities. Everest, Shanghai. The first were the old, friendly dragons. Chinese Dragons. The Chinese dragon is easily recognizable for its long serpentine body that is generally wingless, and its anthropomorphic face, complete with beard. The Chinese Dragon. The Liangzhu culture also produced dragon-like patterns. First is the clothes. People’s love and worship to dragon can be seen in everywhere, from a person’s name to a person’s possession. Noble as a god, the Dragon King is invited into temples, and worshipped by believers. The cult of this deity is historically exercised in southeastern China. The second type were the evil winged dragons as originally told by the Buddhists. Yangshao culture sites in Xi'an have produced clay pots with dragon motifs. Dragons are seen as lucky and good — quite different to the evil, dangerous, fire-breathing dragons of most Western stories. The Chinese proclaim themselves "Lung Tik Chuan Ren", Descendents of the Dragon. The Dragon King appears as a fearsome warrior or as a mighty dragon, at times angry and menacing.  Modern Confucian theology compares them to intelligence, substantial forms or entelechies (inner purposes) as explained by Leibniz, generating all types of beings, so that "even mountains and rivers are worshipped as something capable of enjoying sacrificial offerings". Each year has an animal sign according to the 12-year cycle. Born year of the Rat: 1900, 1912, 1924, 1936, 1948, 1960, 1972, 1984, 1996, 2008, 2020. They’ve had their ups and downs, particularly Ao Guang the Top Dragon, who suffered humiliation at the hands of practically everybody. These are the type of dragons from myths and legends across asia. In some eastern cultures, the dragon plays an integral part in creation mythology.Generally, the oriental dragon is benevolent and powerful, bringer of good fortune. About the use of the title "duke": the term is from Latin. The Green Dragon is the power of the east. Another traditional belief was that the Four Seas of the world (to the ancient Chinese there were four and not seven) were each presided over by a dragon king. Generally, the oriental dragon is benevolent and powerful, bringer of good fortune. For the Chinese scholastic theology about these gods and the supreme godhead of Heaven, see, "Bixia" redirects here. As the god of engineering, he is considered to be one of the greatest warrior gods of Heaven. , Many classical books have lists and hierarchies of gods and immortals, among which the "Completed Record of Deities and Immortals" (神仙通鑑, Shénxiān Tōngjiàn) of the Ming dynasty, and the Biographies of the Deities and Immortals or Shenxian Zhuan by Ge Hong (284–343). If the player is not behind a pillar when the Dragon God turns its head in the … Chinese Dragon. It is possible to hit the Dragon God's weak point with arrows from that point, but it will not register damage until a different condition is met. Saoqing Niangniang ("Lady who Sweeps Clean") is the goddess who ensures good weather conditions "sweeping away" clouds and storms.  As the hub of the skies, the north celestial pole constellations are known, among various names, as Tiānmén 天門 ("Gate of Heaven") and Tiānshū 天樞 ("Pivot of Heaven").. They are lucky animals that can bring a good year for people. The original story of the Chinese dragon has changed over time. Rat Zodiac. In the mythology of various Oriental countries, the dragon is the supreme spiritual power, the most ancient emblem and the most ubiquitous motif in Oriental art.  "Polytheism" and "monotheism" are categories derived from Western religion and do not fit Chinese religion, which has never conceived the two things as opposites. Chinese dragons are powerful and benevolent symbols in Chinese culture, with supposed control over watery phenomenon, e.g. Chinese traditional religion is polytheistic; many deities are worshipped in a pantheistic view where divinity is inherent in the world. Chinese Dragons are divine mythical creatures that brings with it ultimate abundance, prosperity and good fortune. There are nine main goddesses, and all of them tend to be considered as manifestations or attendant forces of a singular goddess identified variously as the Lady of the Blue Dawn (Bìxiá Yuánjūn 碧霞元君, also known as the Tiānxiān Niángniáng 天仙娘娘, "Heavenly Immortal Lady", or Tàishān Niángniáng 泰山娘娘, "Lady of Mount Tai",[viii] or also Jiǔtiān Shèngmǔ 九天聖母, "Holy Mother of the Nine Skies"[ix]):149–150 or Houtu, the goddess of the earth.
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